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The Harappan Civilization developed around 4700 years ago. The earliest city to be developed in India was Harappa in Punjab, in present day Pakistan. Further down the Indus valley, another city was excavated and this was Mohenjo-Daro in Sind. Initially archaeologists called the civilization of these ancient cities the Indus Valley Civilization, because many of the cities were found in thr Indus Valley. Later archaeologists have found more cities resembling those of the Indus Valley in other parts of northern and western India. Therefore the Indus Valley Civilization came to be known as the Harappan Civilization since the pattern of living in these cities resembles those of Harappa. It was called a civilization because people were living a more advanced life than those of the previous periods. Cities were well planned, land was fertile and people grew crops. People living in cities were mainly craftsmen and traders who earned their living by producing and exchanging various articles. The Harappans knew how to write their writing was in the form of pictographs. But unfortunately historians have not been able to understand these pictographs. The Harappa cities began to decline by about 1500 BCE. There is no single reason to explain the reason. Some scholars suggest that rivers dried up, others are of the view that it was due to deforestation or probably floods. But none of these reasons can really explain the end of all the cities.
License:[Source CIET, NCERT ]July 31, 2018, 11:50 a.m.


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